Flight Beyond Limits: Story of X-Planes in Aviation

Reading Time: 3 minutes

In 1944, amidst the turmoil of World War II, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the US Navy, and the US Army Air Force joined forces to establish the X-plane program. This collaborative effort aimed to explore the possibilities of high-speed flight and advance aeronautical research beyond the constraints of wartime necessity.

Three years later, in 1947, the Bell X-1 made history with its groundbreaking flight, piloted by Chuck Yeager, as it became the first aircraft to break the sound barrier in level flight. This monumental achievement not only marked a significant milestone in aviation but also catapulted the X-plane program into the public eye.

The first Bell X-1, serial no. 46-062—the rocket plane that Chuck Yeager piloted past Mach 1—rests on Rogers Dry Lake in the Mojave Desert.

While the Bell X-1 stole the spotlight, numerous other X-planes quietly contributed to aviation progress. Some, like the X-16, operated under a veil of secrecy, undertaking classified missions that pushed the boundaries of technology and capability.

Throughout the following decades, X-planes continued to push the envelope of what was possible in aviation. They explored concepts such as variable wing sweep, the use of exotic materials, and groundbreaking propulsion systems. The North American X-15 hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft of the 1960s achieved remarkable feats, including reaching the fringes of space and setting speed records that remain unbroken to this day.

However, not all X-planes were destined for widespread recognition or full-scale production. Some served as testbeds for experimental technologies, while others were precursors to advancements in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

One standout example of an X-plane transitioning into operational status is the Lockheed Martin X-35. Initially developed as part of the Joint Strike Fighter Program, it emerged victorious against competitors and evolved into the F-35 Lightning II, a cutting-edge multirole fighter jet that serves in various military capacities worldwide.

One-half right front view of the Lockheed Martin X-35B (A20030172000) on display at the National Air and Space Museum’s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, August 5, 2009.

The X-plane program has been a testament to human ingenuity and determination, pushing the boundaries of aviation technology and paving the way for future innovation in the skies.

Pacmin Studios is proud to have modeled several exciting X-planes over our 78-year history and continue to produce models used by airframe programs such as the F-35 Lightning II, available on The Model Shop.

LOCKHEED MARTIN®, F35® Lightning II® Desktop Model in 1/48 Scale — The Model Shop by Pacmin (pacminmodelshop.com)


  1. Lockheed Martin X-35B STOVL. Source: https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/lockheed-martin-x-35b-stovl/nasm_A20030172000
  2. BELL X-1: DROPPING THE ORANGE BEAST THAT BROKE THE SOUND BARRIER. Source: https://www.historynet.com/bell-x-1-dropping-the-orange-beast/
  3. X-15A-2 Speed Record. Source: https://youtu.be/_TYeDWXayFg
  4. X-Planes. Source: https://www.nasa.gov/armstrong/capabilities-facilities/aircraft-at-armstrong/x-planes-at-armstrong/